Linguistic Bibliography

Language keywords

Please note that the following list includes (variant) names for languages, (sub)dialects and other such (sub)systems such as they occur or have occurred in publications and/or are or have been in use otherwise. This list is therefore not exhaustive nor does it differentiate or in any way evaluate the status, official or otherwise of such a name or the system it refers to.

Keywords for Bantu languages were assigned based on the language group classification of the New Updated Guthrie List (opens as pdf) compiled by Jouni Filip Maho.

Last updated: April 2024

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

Language Genetic classification
AAE see: African American English Modern English
Aage see: Esimbi Benue-Congo
ǂAakhoe Khoisan
Aari Omotic
Aasá see: Aasáx Cushitic
Aasáx Cushitic
AAVE see: African American English Modern English
Abau Papuan
Abaza Abkhaz
Abazin see: Abaza Abkhaz
Abenaki Algonquian-Ritwan (Algic)
Abenaqui see: Abenaki Algonquian-Ritwan (Algic)
Abidji Kwa
Abipón Languages of the Chaco Region
Abkhaz Abkhaz
Abma see: Raga Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Abo Bantu
Abron Kwa
Abu Jinuk Nilo-Saharan
Abua Benue-Congo
Abui Papuan
Abul see: Heiban Kordofanian
Abun Papuan
Abure Kwa
Aḅurenị Benue-Congo
Abxazo see: Abkhaz Abkhaz
Acadian French Modern French
Acehnese Western Malayo-Polynesian
Achagua Arawakan stock
Achang Burmese-Lolo (Burmic)
Aché Guarani
Acheron Kordofanian
Achi Mayan
Acholi Nilo-Saharan
Achumawi see: Paleihnihan North American small families and isolates
Adamawa Adamawa
Adamawa-Ubangian Adamawa-Ubangian
Adamorobe Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Adang Papuan
Adare see: Harari Ethiopic
Adele Kwa
Aderinya see: Harari Ethiopic
Adioukrou Kwa
Adjarian Georgian
Adna-mat-na see: Adynyamathanha Southwest Pama-Nyungan
Adygei see: Circassian (Adyghe) Circassian (Adyghe)
Adyghe see: Circassian (Adyghe) Circassian (Adyghe)
Adynyamathanha Southwest Pama-Nyungan
Adzera Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Afar Cushitic
Afenmai see: Yekhee Benue-Congo
Afitti Nilo-Saharan
African American English Modern English
African French Modern French
African Portuguese Non-European Portuguese
Afrikaans Afrikaans
Afro-Asiatic (Hamito-Semitic) languages Afro-Asiatic (Hamito-Semitic) languages
Afro-Bolivian Spanish Romance lexifier pidgins and creoles
Afro-Brazilian Portuguese Non-European Portuguese
Afro-Hispanic Pidgin see: Bozal Spanish Romance lexifier pidgins and creoles
Afro-Peruvian Spanish Romance lexifier pidgins and creoles
Afro-Portuguese Creole of Casamance Romance lexifier pidgins and creoles
Afro-Puerto Rican Spanish Romance lexifier pidgins and creoles
Afro-Seminole English lexifier pidgins and creoles
Afro-Yungueño Spanish see: Afro-Bolivian Spanish Romance lexifier pidgins and creoles
Agaw Cushitic
Agäw see: Agaw Cushitic
Aghem Benue-Congo
Aghul see: Agul Lezghian
Agni see: Anyin Kwa
Agta Languages of the Philippines
Aguacateco see: Awakatek Mayan
Aguaruna Languages of the South American Northern Foothills
Agul Lezghian
Agutaynen Languages of the Philippines
Agwagwune Benue-Congo
Ahamb Oceanic
Àhàn Benue-Congo
Ahirani Southern Indo-Aryan (Marathi)
A-Hmao Hmong-Mien (Miao-Yao)
Ahom Southwestern Tai
Ahtena see: Ahtna Athapaskan-Eyak
Ahtna Athapaskan-Eyak
Ai Nan see: Maonan Kadai
Aikaná see: Aikanã Languages of Central Amazonia
Aikanã Languages of Central Amazonia
Aimele Papuan
Aimol Kuki-Chin-Naga
Ainu Ainu
Aiton Southwestern Tai
Aivaliot see: Asia Minor Greek Modern Greek
Äiwoo see: Ayiwo Papuan
Aja see: Ajagbe Kwa
Ajagbe Kwa
Ajië Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Ajumbu Benue-Congo
Aka-Bea Andamanese
Akan Kwa
Akaselem Gur (Voltaic)
Akawaio Carib family
Akebu Kwa
Akha Burmese-Lolo (Burmic)
Akhvakh see: Axvax Avaro-Andi-Dido
Akie see: Okiek Nilo-Saharan
Akkadian Akkadian
Aklanon Languages of the Philippines
Akoko Benue-Congo
Akpes Benue-Congo
Akposo see: Kposo Kwa
Akum Benue-Congo
Akuntsú Tupian stock
Akwa Bantu
Akwe-Xerente see: Xerente Jê family
’Ala’ala Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Alaba see: Allaaba Cushitic
Alabama-Koasati Muskogean
Alagwa Cushitic
Alamblak Papuan
Alanic Middle Iranian
Alaša see: Alasha Oirat (including Kalmyk)
Alasha Oirat (including Kalmyk)
Alawa Non-Pama-Nyungan
Albanian see: Udi Lezghian
Albanian Albanian
Alderney English see: Channel Island English Modern English
Ale Cushitic
Alege Nilo-Saharan
Aleut Eskimo-Aleut
Algarve Portuguese Modern Portuguese
Algerian Arabic Modern Arabic dialects
Algerian Berber Berber
Algerian Jewish Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Algherese Modern Catalan
Algic see: Algonquian-Ritwan (Algic) Algonquian-Ritwan (Algic)
Algonkin Algonquian-Ritwan (Algic)
Algonquian-Ritwan (Algic) Algonquian-Ritwan (Algic)
Alipur Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Allaaba Cushitic
Allang Central Malayo-Polynesian
Almora Bodish languages
Alorese Central Malayo-Polynesian
Alor (Adang) see: Adang Papuan
Alor-Pantar Papuan
Alsatian New High German
Alsea North American small families and isolates
Altai see: Altay Northeast Turkic
Altaic Altaic
Altay Northeast Turkic
Altinin see: Palewyami Yokuts
Alune Central Malayo-Polynesian
Alutiiq Eskimo-Aleut
Alutor see: Alyutor Chukchi-Kamchatkan
Alyawarr see: Alyawarra Pama-Nyungan
Alyawarra Pama-Nyungan
Alyutor Chukchi-Kamchatkan
Ama Papuan
Ama (Eastern Sudanic) Nilo-Saharan
Amahai Central Malayo-Polynesian
Amahuaca Pano family
Amami Ryukyuan Modern Japanese
Amara Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Amarasi Central Malayo-Polynesian
Amarinnya see: Amharic Ethiopic
Amarinya see: Amharic Ethiopic
Amathusian Minoan, Eteocretan, Prehellenic
Amazigh see: Berber Berber
Amazonian French Creole Romance lexifier pidgins and creoles
Amazonic Spanish Non-European Spanish
Ambakich Papuan
Ambel Papuan
Ambonese Malay Bahasa Indonesia and Bahasa Melayu
Ambulas Papuan
Amdo Tibetan (Central Bodish)
Amele Papuan
American English see: US English Modern English
American Indian Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
American Norwegian Norwegian
American Sign Language American Sign Language
American Swedish Swedish
Amharic Ethiopic
Amharinya see: Amharic Ethiopic
Amis Formosan
ǂ’Amkoe Khoisan
Ammonite Ammonite
Amondawa see: Amundava Tupi-Guarani substock
Amorite Amorite
Amuesha Arawakan stock
Amundava Tupi-Guarani substock
Amurdak Non-Pama-Nyungan
Amuzgo Otomanguean
Ana Juba Arabic see: Juba Arabic Pidgins and creoles with lexifiers other than Romance and English
Anaang Benue-Congo
Anakalangan Central Malayo-Polynesian
Anal Kuki-Chin-Naga
Anambé Tupi-Guarani substock
Anamgura Papuan
Anamuxra see: Anamgura Papuan
Anarya Modern Indo-Aryan
Anatolian Anatolian
Anatolian Arabic Modern Arabic dialects
Ancient Arabic (Safaitic, Lihyanite, Thamudic, Hasaitic) Ancient Arabic (Safaitic, Lihyanite, Thamudic, Hasaitic)
Ancient Ethiopic see: Geʿez Ethiopic
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek
Ancient languages of the Balkans Ancient languages of the Balkans
Ancient languages of the Iberian peninsula see: Basque and the ancient languages of the Iberian peninsula Basque and the ancient languages of the Iberian peninsula
Ancient Latin Ancient Latin
Ancient North Arabian Ancient Arabic (Safaitic, Lihyanite, Thamudic, Hasaitic)
Andalusian Arabic Modern Arabic dialects
Andalusian Spanish Modern Spanish
Andamanese Andamanese
Andean Spanish Non-European Spanish
Andi Avaro-Andi-Dido
Andio Western Malayo-Polynesian
Andoke Languages of the South American Northern Foothills
Aneityum Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Anejom see: Aneityum Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Anfillo Omotic
Angami Kuki-Chin-Naga
Angan Papuan
Angas-Sura Chadic
Angkuic Northern Mon-Khmer
Angolan Portuguese Non-European Portuguese
Angolar Romance lexifier pidgins and creoles
Anguillan Creole English lexifier pidgins and creoles
ǁAni Khoisan
Anii Kwa
Animere Kwa
Anindilyakwa Non-Pama-Nyungan
Annobonese see: Fa d’Ambu Romance lexifier pidgins and creoles
Anong see: Anung Central Tibeto-Burman languages
Antigua and Barbuda Creole English English lexifier pidgins and creoles
Antillean Creole Romance lexifier pidgins and creoles
Anuki Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Anum Kwa
Añún Arawakan stock
Anung Central Tibeto-Burman languages
Anuta Polynesian
Anyi see: Anyin Kwa
Anyin Kwa
Anywa Nilo-Saharan
Ao Kuki-Chin-Naga
Apabhramsa Middle Indo-Aryan
Apache Athapaskan-Eyak
Apalai Carib family
Apali Papuan
Apatani Tibeto-Burman languages of Northeast India (Bangladesh, Nepal)
Apiaká Carib family
Apinajé Jê family
Apinayé see: Apinajé Jê family
Apma see: Raga Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Appalachian English Modern English
Appolo see: Nzema Kwa
Apro Kwa
Apurinã Arawakan stock
Aquitanian Basque
Ar Khorchin see: Baarin Mongolian proper
Arabana-Wangganguru Pama-Nyungan
Arabela Languages of the South American Northern Foothills
Arabic see: Central Semitic: Arabic Central Semitic: Arabic
Araduyiwar see: Gawar-Bati Dardic
Arafundi Papuan
Aragonese Ibero-Romance
Arakanese Burmese-Lolo (Burmic)
Araki Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Aralle-Tabulahan Western Malayo-Polynesian
Aramaic Aramaic
Aranda see: Arrernte Pama-Nyungan
Arandic Pama-Nyungan
Aranese Modern Occitan
Araona Takana family
Arapaho Algonquian-Ritwan (Algic)
Arapesh see: Buki Papuan
Arara Tupian stock
Arara (Panoan) Pano family
Arara do Pará Carib family
Arawá Arawan family
Arawakan stock Arawakan stock
Arawan family Arawan family
Araweté Tupi-Guarani substock
Arbanasi Albanian
Arbel Modern Aramaic
Arbëneshë see: Arbanasi Albanian
Arbëresh Albanian
Arbore Cushitic
Archi Lezghian
Ardhamagadhi Middle Indo-Aryan
'Are'are Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Argentinian Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Argobba Ethiopic
Argobbinya see: Argobba Ethiopic
Aribwatsa Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Arikara Caddoan
Arleng see: Karbi Kuki-Chin-Naga
Armenian Armenian
Aromanian Balkan Romance
Arop Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Arop-Lokep Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Arosi Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Arpitan see: Franco-Provençal Franco-Provençal
Arrarnte see: Arrernte Pama-Nyungan
Arrernte Pama-Nyungan
Arsacid Pahlavi see: Parthian Middle Iranian
Arta Languages of the Philippines
Aru Central Malayo-Polynesian
Aru Khorchin see: Baarin Mongolian proper
Aruá Tupian stock
Arumanian see: Aromanian Balkan Romance
Arvanitika Albanian
Arwur see: Warray Non-Pama-Nyungan
Asamiya see: Assamese Eastern Indo-Aryan
Asháninka Arawakan stock
Ashéninca Arawakan stock
Ashtiyani West Iranian
Asia Minor Greek Modern Greek
Asian Englishes Modern English
Asianic and Mediterranean languages Asianic and Mediterranean languages
Asianic languages Asianic languages
Asilulu Central Malayo-Polynesian
Aslian Southern Mon-Khmer
Asmat-Kamoro Papuan
Assamese Eastern Indo-Aryan
Assiniboine Siouan
Assyrian Akkadian
Asturian Ibero-Romance
Asurini do Tocantins Tupi-Guarani substock
Asurini do Xingu Tupi-Guarani substock
Atacameño see: Kunsa Languages of the South American Cone
Atadei Central Malayo-Polynesian
Atakapa North American small families and isolates
Atayal Formosan
Ateso Nilo-Saharan
Athapaskan Athapaskan-Eyak
Athapaskan-Eyak Athapaskan-Eyak
Athpare Himalayan Bodic languages
Ati Piman Uto-Aztecan
Atlantic Atlantic
Atong Tibeto-Burman languages of Northeast India (Bangladesh, Nepal)
Atsi Bantu
Atsina Algonquian-Ritwan (Algic)
Atsugewi see: Paleihnihan North American small families and isolates
Attié Kwa
’Auhelawa Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Aujila Berber
Aukaans see: Ndyuka English lexifier pidgins and creoles
Aukan see: Ndyuka English lexifier pidgins and creoles
Aulua Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
ǀ’Auni Khoisan
Aushi Bantu
Austral Polynesian
Australian Australian
Australian Aboriginal English Modern English
Australian English Modern English
Australian Pidgins English lexifier pidgins and creoles
Australian Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Austrian German New High German
Austrian Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Austro-Asiatic Austro-Asiatic
Austronesian Austronesian
Austronesian, Papuan and Australian languages Austronesian, Papuan and Australian languages
Avá Guarani
Avá-Canoeiro Tupi-Guarani substock
Avaipa Papuan
Avar Avaro-Andi-Dido
Avaro-Andi-Dido Avaro-Andi-Dido
Avatime Kwa
Avava Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Avestan Old Iranian
Awa Languages of Northwest South America
Awa Pit see: Awa Languages of Northwest South America
Awabakal Southwest Pama-Nyungan
Awad Bing Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Awakatek Mayan
Awar Papuan
Awara Papuan
Awarai see: Warray Non-Pama-Nyungan
Awarra see: Warray Non-Pama-Nyungan
Awetí Tupian stock
Awiakay Papuan
Awing Benue-Congo
Awjila see: Aujila Berber
Awngi Cushitic
Awtuw Papuan
Awutu see: Efutu Kwa
Awyu Papuan
Axvax Avaro-Andi-Dido
Ayere Benue-Congo
Ayiwo Papuan
Aymara Aymara
Ayöök Mixe-Zoquean
Ayoreo Languages of the Chaco Region
Ayu Benue-Congo
Ayutla Mixe-Zoquean
Azerbaijani Azerbaijani
Azerbaijani Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Azorean Portuguese Modern Portuguese
Aztecan see: Uto-Aztecan Uto-Aztecan
Baadi Nyulnyulan
Baale Nilo-Saharan
Baarin Mongolian proper
Baba Malay Bahasa Indonesia and Bahasa Melayu
Babanki see: Kejom Benue-Congo
Babatana Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Babine Athapaskan-Eyak
Babylonian Akkadian
Bactrian Middle Iranian
Badaga South Dravidian
Bade Chadic
Badi see: Baadi Nyulnyulan
Badiaranke see: Badyara Atlantic
Badjidi Pama-Nyungan
Badyara Atlantic
Baenga-Bolombo Bantu
Bafanji Benue-Congo
Bafia A50 Bantu
Bafo Bantu
Bafou see: Yemba Benue-Congo
Bafut Benue-Congo
Baghdadi Arabic see: Iraqi Arabic Modern Arabic dialects
Bagulal Avaro-Andi-Dido
Bagvalal Avaro-Andi-Dido
Bahamian Creole English English lexifier pidgins and creoles
Bahamian English Modern English
Bahasa Indonesia and Bahasa Melayu Bahasa Indonesia and Bahasa Melayu
Bahenemo see: Bahinemo Papuan
Bahinemo Papuan
Bahing Himalayan Bodic languages
Bahnaric Eastern Mon-Khmer
Bai Northeastern Tibeto-Burman languages
Baikeno Central Malayo-Polynesian
Bailko see: Nijadali Southwest Pama-Nyungan
Baima Himalayan Bodic languages
Baining Papuan
Baïnounk Atlantic
Bainuk see: Baïnounk Atlantic
Baiso see: Bayso Cushitic
Bajan English lexifier pidgins and creoles
Bajau Western Malayo-Polynesian
Bajo Western Malayo-Polynesian
Baka Ubangian (Eastern)
Bakairí Carib family
Baki Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Bakoko Bantu
Bakumpai Western Malayo-Polynesian
Bak̓ʷəmk̓ala Wakashan
Bala Manchu
Balačka Ukrainian or Russian
Balami Himalayan Bodic languages
Balangingi Languages of the Philippines
Balanta Atlantic
Balantak Western Malayo-Polynesian
Balearic Catalan Modern Catalan
Balinese Western Malayo-Polynesian
Bali-Vitu see: Muduapa Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Balkan dialects see: Turkish (Osmanli), Balkan dialects, Gagauz Turkish (Osmanli), Balkan dialects, Gagauz
Balkan linguistics Balkan linguistics
Balkan Romance Balkan Romance
Balochi see: Baluchi Northwest Iranian
Balong Bantu
Balti Tibetan (Central Bodish)
Baltic Baltic
Balto-Slavic Balto-Slavic
Baluchi Northwest Iranian
Balygu see: Nijadali Southwest Pama-Nyungan
Bamako see: Bambara Mande
Bamana see: Bambara Mande
Bamanankan see: Bambara Mande
Bambara Mande
Bamileke-Bangangté see: Medumba Benue-Congo
Bamun Benue-Congo
Ban Khor Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Banaro Papuan
Banat Bulgarian
Banavá-Jafi see: Banawá Arawan family
Banawá Arawan family
Banda Ubangian (Eastern)
Bandanese Central Malayo-Polynesian
Bandi Mande
Bandial Atlantic
Bandjalang see: Bundjalung Non-Pama-Nyungan
Bangala Bantu
Bangerang see: Yorta Yorta Pama-Nyungan
Bangi Bantu
Bangime Languages of Sub-Saharan Africa
Bangi-Ntomba C30 Bantu
Bangka Bahasa Indonesia and Bahasa Melayu
Bangla see: Bengali Bengali
Bangla Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Bangladeshi English Modern English
Bangru Tibeto-Burman
Bangubangu Bantu
Baniva Arawakan stock
Baniwa see: Baniva Arawakan stock
Banjalang see: Bundjalung Non-Pama-Nyungan
Banjar Malay Bahasa Indonesia and Bahasa Melayu
Bankagooma Mande
Banoni Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Banoo Bantu
Banso see: Lamnso Benue-Congo
Bantawa Himalayan Bodic languages
Bantik Western Malayo-Polynesian
Bantu Bantu
Bantu-Botatwe see: Lenje-Tonga M60 Bantu
Banyaduq Western Malayo-Polynesian
Baoan Modern Mongolic languages besides Mongolian
Baoulé Kwa
Baraamu Bodish languages
Baraban Western Kipchak (Tatar, Bashkir, Crimean Tatar, Karaim)
Baram Himalayan Bodic languages
Baram Kajan Western Malayo-Polynesian
Barang-Barang Western Malayo-Polynesian
Barasana Tukanoan stock
Barbacoan Languages of Northwest South America
Barbadian Creole see: Bajan English lexifier pidgins and creoles
Bard see: Baadi Nyulnyulan
Barda see: Baadi Nyulnyulan
Bardi see: Baadi Nyulnyulan
Bare Arawakan stock
Barea see: Nera Nilo-Saharan
Barein Chadic
Bargam Papuan
Bargoens Modern Dutch
Bargut Buriat (Buryat)
Bari Nilo-Saharan
Bariai Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Barkly Non-Pama-Nyungan
Barngarla Pama-Nyungan
Barombi Bantu
Barranquenho Ibero-Romance
Barunga Kriol English lexifier pidgins and creoles
Barupu see: Warapu Papuan
Baruya Papuan
Barwe Bantu
Barya see: Nera Nilo-Saharan
Basa Benue-Congo
Basaa Bantu
Basaa A40 Bantu
Basap Malayo-Polynesian
Basay Formosan
Bashkardi Southwest Iranian
Bashkarik see: Kalami Dardic
Bashkir Western Kipchak (Tatar, Bashkir, Crimean Tatar, Karaim)
Basketo Omotic
Basketto see: Basketo Omotic
BASL see: Black American Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Basque Basque
Basque and the ancient languages of the Iberian peninsula Basque and the ancient languages of the Iberian peninsula
Bata Chadic
Batad Ifugao see: Ifugao Languages of the Philippines
Batak Western Malayo-Polynesian
Batak Angkola Western Malayo-Polynesian
Batak Dairi Western Malayo-Polynesian
Batak Mandailing Western Malayo-Polynesian
Bàtɔ̀nū Gur (Voltaic)
Bathari South Arabic
Bats see: Tsova-Tush Nakh
Bauchi Chadic
Baule see: Baoulé Kwa
Baure Arawakan stock
Bavarian New High German
Bawlé see: Baoulé Kwa
Bawule see: Baoulé Kwa
Baya see: Gbaya Ubangian (Eastern)
Bayot Atlantic
Bayso Cushitic
Bayungu Southwest Pama-Nyungan
Bazaar Malay Pidgins and creoles with lexifiers other than Romance and English
Bbadha see: Lendu Nilo-Saharan
Beaver Athapaskan-Eyak
Bebele Bantu
Bedawiye see: Beja Cushitic
Bedayuh Western Malayo-Polynesian
Bedia see: Kudmali Eastern Indo-Aryan
Bedja see: Beja Cushitic
Bedouin Arabic Modern Arabic dialects
Bedouin Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Beezen Benue-Congo
Begak Western Malayo-Polynesian
Behran see: Thayore Paman
Beijing Mandarin Modern Chinese
Beja Cushitic
Bekol Bantu
Bekwel Bantu
Bel Oceanic
Belait Western Malayo-Polynesian
Belanda Bor Nilo-Saharan
Belantak Western Malayo-Polynesian
Belarusian (Byelo-Russian, White Russian) Belarusian (Byelo-Russian, White Russian)
Belauan see: Palauan Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Belgian Dutch Modern Dutch
Belgian French see: Walloon Modern French
Belhare Himalayan Bodic languages
Beli Nilo-Saharan
Belizean Creole English lexifier pidgins and creoles
Bella Coola Salish
Bemba Bantu
Bemba M40 Bantu
Bembe-Buyi D50 Bantu
Bena Bantu
Bena-Kinga G60 Bantu
Bena-Yungur Adamawa
Bench Omotic
Benchnon see: Bench Omotic
Bende Bantu
Beng Mande
Bengali Bengali
Bentulu Western Malayo-Polynesian
Benue-Congo Benue-Congo
Berau Bahasa Indonesia and Bahasa Melayu
Berawan Western Malayo-Polynesian
Berba see: Biali Gur (Voltaic)
Berber Berber
Berbice Dutch Creole Pidgins and creoles with lexifiers other than Romance and English
Beria see: Zagawa-Bideyat-Berti Nilo-Saharan
Berinmo Papuan
Bermudian English Modern English
Berta Nilo-Saharan
Betawi Malay Bahasa Indonesia and Bahasa Melayu
Bété Kru
Bete-Bendi Benue-Congo
Betoi Languages of Northwest South America
Betta Kuruba see: Betta Kurumba Tamil
Betta Kurumba Tamil
Bezhita Tsezic
Bezhta see: Bezhita Tsezic
Bezhti see: Bezhita Tsezic
Bhaca Bantu
Bhadarwahi Northern Indo-Aryan (Pahari/Himalayan)
Bhojpuri Eastern Indo-Aryan
Bhujel Himalayan Bodic languages
Biak South Halmahera-West-New Guinea
Biali Gur (Voltaic)
Biao Tai-Kadai
Biao Min Hmong-Mien (Miao-Yao)
Biblical Hebrew see: Pre-Biblical, Biblical and Mishnaic Hebrew Pre-Biblical, Biblical and Mishnaic Hebrew
Bidayuh see: Bedayuh Western Malayo-Polynesian
Bidiya Chadic
Bidyogo see: Bijogo Atlantic
Bierebo Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Bieri see: Biali Gur (Voltaic)
Bieria Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Bih Malayo-Polynesian
Bijago see: Bijogo Atlantic
Bijogo Atlantic
Bijori see: Birjia Munda
Bikol Languages of the Philippines
Bilen see: Bilin Cushitic
Bilin Cushitic
Bilinarra Southwest Pama-Nyungan
Bilua Papuan
Bilybara see: Pilbara Southwest Pama-Nyungan
Bimanese Central Malayo-Polynesian
Binanderean Papuan
Binigura see: Pinikura Australian
Bininj Gun-wok Non-Pama-Nyungan
Bininj Kunwok see: Bininj Gun-wok Non-Pama-Nyungan
Binjhia see: Birjia Munda
Binji Bantu
Binnigora see: Pinikura Australian
Binukid Languages of the Philippines
Birale see: Ongota Afro-Asiatic (Hamito-Semitic) languages
Bira-Nyali D30 Bantu
Birgandi West Iranian
Birhor Munda
Biri Pama-Nyungan
Birjia Munda
Birrdhawal Pama-Nyungan
Birwa Bantu
Bisa see: Bissa Mande
Bisayan Languages of the Philippines
Bislama English lexifier pidgins and creoles
Bissa Mande
Bisu Burmese-Lolo (Burmic)
Bit Austro-Asiatic
Bitur Papuan
Biu-Mandara Chadic
Bizisa Northeastern Tibeto-Burman languages
Bjokapakha Tibeto-Burman
Black American Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Black Mountain see: Olekha Tibetan (Central Bodish)
Black Seminole see: Afro-Seminole English lexifier pidgins and creoles
Black South African English see: South African Black English Modern English
Black Tai Southwestern Tai
Blackfoot Algonquian-Ritwan (Algic)
Blagar Papuan
Blang Northern Mon-Khmer
Blin see: Bilin Cushitic
Boandik see: Buwandik Paman
Bobe Bantu
Bobo Mande
Bobongko Western Malayo-Polynesian
Bocota see: Buglere Chibcha family
Bodic see: Western Tibeto-Burman (Bodic) Western Tibeto-Burman (Bodic)
Bodish Bodish
Bodish languages Bodish languages
Bodo Tibeto-Burman languages of Northeast India (Bangladesh, Nepal)
Bodo-Garo Tibeto-Burman languages of Northeast India (Bangladesh, Nepal)
Bogo see: Bilin Cushitic
Bogos see: Bilin Cushitic
Bogue see: Esimbi Benue-Congo
Bohairic Coptic
Bokhan Buriat (Buryat)
Boko Mande
Bokobaru Mande
Bokoto Ubangian (Eastern)
Bola Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Bolak Planned languages
Bolango Languages of the Philippines
Bole Chadic
Bolgar see: Chuvash (Bolgar) Chuvash (Bolgar)
Bolo Bantu
Bolyu Southern Mon-Khmer
Bom Atlantic
Bonan see: Baoan Modern Mongolic languages besides Mongolian
Bonda see: Remo Munda
Bondei Bantu
Bondoukou see: Kulango Gur (Voltaic)
Bondu-so Niger-Congo (Niger-Kordofanian)
Bonggi Languages of the Philippines
Bongili Bantu
Bongo Nilo-Saharan
Bongor Arabic Pidgins and creoles with lexifiers other than Romance and English
Boni Cushitic
Bontok Languages of the Philippines
Booandik see: Buwandik Paman
Boor Chadic
Bora Languages of the South American Northern Foothills
Borana Cushitic
Border languages Border languages
Boro Omotic
Boro (Tibeto-Burman) see: Bodo Tibeto-Burman languages of Northeast India (Bangladesh, Nepal)
Bororo Macro-Jê stock
Boruca Chibcha family
Borum see: Botocudo Macro-Jê stock
Bosavi Papuan
Bosnian Serbo-Croatian (Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian)
Bote Eastern Indo-Aryan
Botlix Avaro-Andi-Dido
Botocudo Macro-Jê stock
Botswana English Modern English
Bouakako Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Bouyei Northern Tai
Bozal Spanish Romance lexifier pidgins and creoles
Brabantic Modern Dutch
Brahui North Dravidian
Brazilian Portuguese Non-European Portuguese
Brazilian Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Brazilian Venetian Italo-Romance
Brazilian Vernacular Portuguese Non-European Portuguese
Breton Breton
Bribri Chibcha family
Brijia see: Birjia Munda
British English Modern English
British Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Brittonic Brittonic
Brokpa Tibetan (Central Bodish)
Bru Eastern Mon-Khmer
Brunei Bahasa Indonesia and Bahasa Melayu
Brunei English Modern English
Bua Chadic
Buang Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Bubia Bantu
Bubi-Benga A30 Bantu
Budinos Planned languages
Budugh see: Budux Lezghian
Budukh see: Budux Lezghian
Buduma Chadic
Budux Lezghian
Buga Khoisan
Bugan Southern Mon-Khmer
Buganditj see: Buwandik Paman
Bugawac Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Bughotu Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Buginese see: Bugis Western Malayo-Polynesian
Bugis Western Malayo-Polynesian
Buglere Chibcha family
Bugotu see: Bughotu Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Bugun Central Tibeto-Burman languages
Buin Papuan
Bujhyal see: Bhujel Himalayan Bodic languages
Bukalabang Papuan
Bukawa see: Bugawac Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Bukharic Southwest Iranian
Buki Papuan
Bukusu Bantu
Bulaga River languages see: Yelmek-Maklew Papuan
Bulgarian Bulgarian
Bulgarian recension Old Slavic
Bulgarian Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Buli (Austronesian) South Halmahera-West-New Guinea
Buli (Gur) Gur (Voltaic)
Bulisa see: Buli (Gur) Gur (Voltaic)
Bullom So see: Mani Atlantic
Bulom see: Mani Atlantic
Bulu Bantu
Bulu-Bene Bantu
Buma Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Bumang Austro-Asiatic
Bumthang Bodish languages
Buna see: Bunaq Papuan
Bunaba see: Bunuba Non-Pama-Nyungan
Bunak see: Bunaq Papuan
Bunaki see: Naki Benue-Congo
Bunan Bodish languages
Bunaq Papuan
Bundeli Hindi and Urdu
Bundjalung Non-Pama-Nyungan
Bunganditj see: Buwandik Paman
Bungku Western Malayo-Polynesian
Bungu Bantu
Bunong see: Mnong Eastern Mon-Khmer
Bunu Hmong-Mien (Miao-Yao)
Bunuba Non-Pama-Nyungan
Bunun Formosan
Buol Languages of the Philippines
Bura-Pabir Chadic
Burarra Non-Pama-Nyungan
Burba see: Biali Gur (Voltaic)
Burgenland Croatian Serbo-Croatian (Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian)
Burgundian Burgundian
Buriat (Buryat) Buriat (Buryat)
Burji Cushitic
Burmese Burmese-Lolo (Burmic)
Burmese-Lolo (Burmic) Burmese-Lolo (Burmic)
Burmeso Papuan
Burmic see: Burmese-Lolo (Burmic) Burmese-Lolo (Burmic)
Buru Central Malayo-Polynesian
Burun Nilo-Saharan
Burundi Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Burunge Cushitic
Burushaski South Asian isolates
Buryat see: Buriat (Buryat) Buriat (Buryat)
Busa Mande
Bushoong C80 Bantu
Bussa Cushitic
Butuanon Languages of the Philippines
Buu Benue-Congo
Buwal Chadic
Buwandik Paman
Buyang Kadai
Buyuan see: Jino Burmese-Lolo (Burmic)
Bwa Bantu
Bwaidoka Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Bwala Bantu
Bwamu Gur (Voltaic)
Bwe Karen
Bwela Bantu
Byali see: Biali Gur (Voltaic)
Byangsi Bodish languages
Byelo-Russian see: Belarusian (Byelo-Russian, White Russian) Belarusian (Byelo-Russian, White Russian)
Byrale see: Ongota Afro-Asiatic (Hamito-Semitic) languages
Byzantine and Medieval Greek Byzantine and Medieval Greek
Caac Oceanic
Cabécar Chibcha family
Cabiyari Arawakan stock
Cabrais see: Kabiyé Gur (Voltaic)
Cacán Languages of South America
Cacua Languages of Western Amazonia
Caddo Caddoan
Caddoan Caddoan
Cahuapana see: Kawapana Languages of the South American Northern Foothills
Cahuilla Uto-Aztecan
Caijia Sino-Tibetan
Cajun English Modern English
Cak see: Chak Tibeto-Burman languages of Northeast India (Bangladesh, Nepal)
Čakavian Serbo-Croatian (Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian)
Calabrian Greek see: Griko Modern Greek
Callahuaya see: Kallawaya Languages of the Andes
Caló Romani
Calunga Romance lexifier pidgins and creoles
Calusa North American small families and isolates
Cama Kwa
Cameroon Pidgin English lexifier pidgins and creoles
Cameroon Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Camfranglais Modern French
Camileroi see: Gamilaraay Southwest Pama-Nyungan
Camling Himalayan Bodic languages
Canaanite Canaanite
Canadian English Modern English
Canadian French Modern French
Canarian Spanish Modern Spanish
Candoshi-Shapra Languages of Western Amazonia
Canela Jê family
Cangin Atlantic
Caning Nilo-Saharan
Cantonese Modern Chinese
Cantonese Nung Modern Chinese
Cao Lan Central Tai
Capanawa Pano family
Cape Dutch Pidgin Pidgins and creoles with lexifiers other than Romance and English
Cape Malay Bahasa Indonesia and Bahasa Melayu
Cape Verdean Creole Romance lexifier pidgins and creoles
Cape Verdean Portuguese Non-European Portuguese
Cappadocian see: Asia Minor Greek Modern Greek
Čaqar see: Chakhar Mongolian proper
Caquetá see: Coreguaje Tukanoan stock
Car Southern Mon-Khmer
Cara Khoisan
Carabayo Languages of Western Amazonia
Carian Carian
Carib see: Kari’ña Carib family
Carib family Carib family
Caribbean English Modern English
Caribbean French Creole see: Antillean Creole Romance lexifier pidgins and creoles
Caribbean Hindustani Eastern Indo-Aryan
Caribbean Spanish Non-European Spanish
Carijona Carib family
Carinthian-Slovenian Slovenian
Carrier Athapaskan-Eyak
Cashinahua see: Cashinawa Pano family
Cashinawa Pano family
Catalan Catalan
Catalan Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Caucasian languages Caucasian languages
Caucasian Turkic (Karachay-Balkar, Kumyk) Caucasian Turkic (Karachay-Balkar, Kumyk)
Cavineña Takana family
Caxinaua see: Cashinawa Pano family
Caxur see: Tsaxur Lezghian
Cayapa see: Chachi Languages of Northwest South America
Cayuga Iroquoian
Cebuano Languages of the Philippines
Celtiberian see: Celtiberian and Hispano-Celtic Celtiberian and Hispano-Celtic
Celtiberian and Hispano-Celtic Celtiberian and Hispano-Celtic
Celtic Celtic
Cemuhi Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Cena Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Central Alaskan Yupik see: Yupik Eskimo-Aleut
Central American Spanish Non-European Spanish
Central Asian Arabic Modern Arabic dialects
Central Bodish see: Tibetan (Central Bodish) Tibetan (Central Bodish)
Central Catalan Modern Catalan
Central Delta Benue-Congo
Central Dravidian Central Dravidian
Central Indo-Aryan Central Indo-Aryan
Central Italian dialects Italo-Romance
Central Kenya Bantu see: Kikuyu-Kamba E50 Bantu
Central Malay Bahasa Indonesia and Bahasa Melayu
Central Malayo-Polynesian Central Malayo-Polynesian
Central Manenguba Bantu
Central Plains Mandarin Modern Chinese
Central Semitic: Arabic Central Semitic: Arabic
Central Sudanic Nilo-Saharan
Central Tai Central Tai
Central Taurus Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Central Tibetan Tibetan (Central Bodish)
Central Tibeto-Burman languages Central Tibeto-Burman languages
Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian
Cerma Gur (Voltaic)
Cha’ Palaachi see: Chachi Languages of Northwest South America
Chabacano Romance lexifier pidgins and creoles
Chachi Languages of Northwest South America
Chácobo Pano family
Chadian Arabic Modern Arabic dialects
Chadic Chadic
Chadong Kadai
Chaga E60 Bantu
Chagatay Southeast Turkic (Uighur)
Chaha Ethiopic
Chaima Carib family
Chak Tibeto-Burman languages of Northeast India (Bangladesh, Nepal)
Chakali Gur (Voltaic)
Chakhar Mongolian proper
Chakma Eastern Indo-Aryan
Chalkandu Northeast Turkic
Cham Malayo-Polynesian
Chamacoco Languages of the Chaco Region
Chamalal Avaro-Andi-Dido
Chamalin see: Chamalal Avaro-Andi-Dido
Chamba-Daka Adamawa
Chamikuro Arawakan stock
Chamling see: Camling Himalayan Bodic languages
Chamorro Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Chamuro see: Chamorro Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Chan see: Laz Zan
Chaná Languages of the Chaco Region
Chang Tibeto-Burman languages of Northeast India (Bangladesh, Nepal)
Changana Bantu
Chanindawa see: Sharanawa Pano family
Channel Island English Modern English
Chantyal Bodish languages
Chaocha Pai see: Coreguaje Tukanoan stock
Chaouia Berber
Chapakura stock Chapakura stock
Chara Omotic
Charrúan Languages of the Chaco Region
Chashan Yao see: Lakkja Tai-Kadai
Chasu Bantu
Chatino Otomanguean
Chatino Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Chattisgarhi East-Central Indo-Aryan (Kosali)
Chaudangsi Bodish languages
Chayahuita Languages of the South American Northern Foothills
Chechen Nakh
Chehalis Salish
Cheke Holo Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Chepang Himalayan Bodic languages
Cheremis see: Mari (Cheremis) Mari (Cheremis)
Cherkes see: Circassian (Adyghe) Circassian (Adyghe)
Cherokee Iroquoian
Chewa-Nyanja Bantu
Chewa-Nyanja N30 Bantu
Cheyenne Algonquian-Ritwan (Algic)
Chhulung see: Chulung Himalayan Bodic languages
Chibcha family Chibcha family
Chibcha-Misumalpa stock Chibcha-Misumalpa stock
Chican Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Chicano English Modern English
Chichimec Otomanguean
Chickasaw Muskogean
Chicomuceltec Mayan
Chilcotin Athapaskan-Eyak
Chilean Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Chilean Spanish Non-European Spanish
Chilkhodin see: Chilcotin Athapaskan-Eyak
Chimakuan North American small families and isolates
Chimane Languages of the South American Southern Foothills
Chimariko North American small families and isolates
Chimbu-Wahgi Papuan
Chimila Chibcha family
Chin Kuki-Chin-Naga
China English Modern English
Chinese English see: China English Modern English
Chinglish see: China English Modern English
Chini Papuan
Chinantec Otomanguean
Chinese see: Sinitic (Chinese) Sinitic (Chinese)
Chinese Pidgin English English lexifier pidgins and creoles
Chinese Pidgin Russian Pidgins and creoles with lexifiers other than Romance and English
Chinese Pidgin Spanish Romance lexifier pidgins and creoles
Chinese Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Chinook Jargon English lexifier pidgins and creoles
Chinookan North American small families and isolates
Chintang Himalayan Bodic languages
Chipaya Languages of the Andes
Chipewyan Athapaskan-Eyak
Chiquitano Languages of Eastern Brazil
Chiriguano Tupi-Guarani substock
Chirripó see: Cabécar Chibcha family
Chiru Kuki-Chin-Naga
Chitimacha North American small families and isolates
Chitrali see: Khowar Dardic
Chiwere Siouan
Chkhalan see: Čxaluri Zan
Chocha-ngachakha Tibetan (Central Bodish)
Chocó Languages of Northwest South America
Chocó Spanish Romance lexifier pidgins and creoles
Choctaw Muskogean
Chokri Kuki-Chin-Naga
Ch’ol Mayan
Cholan Mayan
Cholón Languages of the Andes
Ch’olti’ Mayan
Cholurian Svan
Chon Languages of the South American Southern Foothills
Chone Tibetan (Central Bodish)
Chong Eastern Mon-Khmer
Chontal de Oaxaca see: Tequistlatec Mesoamerican small families and isolates
Chontal de Tabasco Mayan
Chorasan Turkic see: Turkmen, Chorasan Turkic Turkmen, Chorasan Turkic
Chorei Kuki-Chin-Naga
Choresmian see: Khwarezmian Middle Iranian
Chorote Languages of the Chaco Region
Ch’orti’ Mayan
Chota Valley Spanish Romance lexifier pidgins and creoles
Christian Arabic Modern Arabic dialects
Christian Middle Arabic see: Middle Arabic Middle Arabic
Chru Malayo-Polynesian
Chuj Mayan
Chukchansi Yokuts
Chukchi Chukchi-Kamchatkan
Chukchi-Kamchatkan Chukchi-Kamchatkan
Chukotko see: Chukchi Chukchi-Kamchatkan
Chulung Himalayan Bodic languages
Chulupí see: Niwaklé Languages of the Chaco Region
Chulym Northeast Turkic
Chumash see: Chumashan North American small families and isolates
Chumashan North American small families and isolates
Chumburung Kwa
Chundzur see: Avar Avaro-Andi-Dido
Chung Eastern Mon-Khmer
Chuukese Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Chuvash (Bolgar) Chuvash (Bolgar)
Chuwabu Bantu
Cia-Cia Central Malayo-Polynesian
Cicipu Benue-Congo
Cilician Armenian Armenian
Cimbrian New High German
Cinta Larga Tupian stock
Ciokwe Bantu
Ciokwe-Luchazi K10 Bantu
Circassian (Adyghe) Circassian (Adyghe)
Clallam see: Klallam Salish
Classical and Modern Standard Arabic Classical and Modern Standard Arabic
Classical Egyptian see: Middle (Classical) Egyptian Middle (Classical) Egyptian
Classical Malay Bahasa Indonesia and Bahasa Melayu
Classical Tibetan Tibetan (Central Bodish)
C’lela Benue-Congo
Coahuilteco North American small families and isolates
Coast Salish Salish
Coastal Marind Papuan
Cocama-Cocamilla see: Kukama-Kukamiria Tupi-Guarani substock
Cocopa Yuman
Coeur d’Alene Salish
Cofán Languages of the South American Northern Foothills
Cogapacori see: Nanti Arawakan stock
Colac Pama-Nyungan
Coligan see: Colac Pama-Nyungan
Cológnoro Italo-Romance
Colombian Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Colorado see: Tsafiki Languages of Northwest South America
Columbia Salish Salish
Colville-Okanagan see: Okanagan Salish
Comanche Uto-Aztecan
Comorian Bantu
Comox Salish
Congo Swahili Bantu
Continental Celtic Continental Celtic
Continental Scandinavian Continental Scandinavian
Cook Islands Māori Polynesian
Coos North American small families and isolates
Copi S60 Bantu
Copper River see: Ahtna Athapaskan-Eyak
Coptic Coptic
Cora Uto-Aztecan
Coreguaje Tukanoan stock
Cornish Cornish
Cornouaillais see: Kerneveg Modern Breton
Corsican Corsican
Costa Rican Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Costanoan North American small families and isolates
Costeño Spanish Romance lexifier pidgins and creoles
C’ova-Tušuri see: Tsova-Tush Nakh
Craô see: Krahô Jê family
Cree Algonquian-Ritwan (Algic)
Creek-Seminole Muskogean
Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi Algonquian-Ritwan (Algic)
Crimean Tatar Western Kipchak (Tatar, Bashkir, Crimean Tatar, Karaim)
Crnogorski see: Montenegrin Serbo-Croatian (Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian)
Croatian Serbo-Croatian (Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian)
Croatian recension Old Slavic
Croatian Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Crow Siouan
Cua Eastern Mon-Khmer
Cuaiquer see: Awa Languages of Northwest South America
Cuba Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Cubeo Tukanoan stock
Cuiba Languages of Western Amazonia
Cuicatec Otomanguean
Cuka Bantu
C’uli’ Formosan
Cullo see: Dawro Omotic
Cuman Northwest Turkic (Kipchak)
Cun Kadai
Cuna see: Kuna Chibcha family
Cuoi Vietic
Cupeño Uto-Aztecan
Cup’ig Eskimo-Aleut
Curipaco see: Kurripako Arawakan stock
Curripaco see: Kurripako Arawakan stock
Cushitic Cushitic
Cuvok Chadic
Cxaluri see: Čxaluri Zan
Čxaluri Zan
Cypriot Modern Greek
Cypriot Arabic Modern Arabic dialects
Cypriot Turkish Turkish (Osmanli), Balkan dialects, Gagauz
Czech Czech
Czech recension Old Slavic
Czech Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Da’a Western Malayo-Polynesian
Daai Kuki-Chin-Naga
Daai Chin see: Daai Kuki-Chin-Naga
Daakaka Oceanic
Daasanach Cushitic
Daatsʼíin Nilo-Saharan
Dabida Bantu
Daco-Romance see: Romanian (Rumanian) Romanian (Rumanian)
Dadanitic Ancient Arabic (Safaitic, Lihyanite, Thamudic, Hasaitic)
Dadiya Adamawa
Dadjriwalé Kru
Dadungalung see: Tanganekald Pama-Nyungan
Daeng see: Tai Daeng Southwestern Tai
Dagaare Gur (Voltaic)
Dagbamba see: Dagbani Gur (Voltaic)
Dagbane see: Dagbani Gur (Voltaic)
Dagbani Gur (Voltaic)
Dagbanli see: Dagbani Gur (Voltaic)
Daghestanian see: Northeast Caucasian Northeast Caucasian
Dagik Kordofanian
Dagomba see: Dagbani Gur (Voltaic)
Dagur Modern Mongolic languages besides Mongolian
Dahalik Ethiopic
Dahalo Cushitic
Dahlak see: Dahalik Ethiopic
Daisu Bantu
Daju Nilo-Saharan
Dakota Siouan
Dakotan Siouan
Dakpa see: Dakpakha Bodish languages
Dakpakha Bodish languages
Dalabon Non-Pama-Nyungan
Dalmatian Dalmatian
Daly Non-Pama-Nyungan
Damana see: Sanká Chibcha family
Dameli Dardic
Damin see: Lardil Southwest Pama-Nyungan
Dan Mande
Danau Northern Mon-Khmer
Danche Chadic
Dangaléat Chadic
Danganararumindjeri see: Tanganekald Pama-Nyungan
Dangla see: Dangaléat Chadic
Dangme Kwa
Dani Papuan
Danish Danish
Danish Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Danu Burmese-Lolo (Burmic)
Danuwar Modern Indo-Aryan
Da’o Languages of the Philippines
Daohua Modern Chinese
Darai Modern Indo-Aryan
Dardic Dardic
Dargi/Dargwa Dargi/Dargwa
Dari Persian
Darkhad see: Darkhat Modern Mongolian
Darkhan Mongolian proper
Darkhat Modern Mongolian
Darma Bodish languages
Darmiya Bodish languages
Dartsendo Himalayan Bodic languages
Dass Chadic
Datooga Nilo-Saharan
Daur see: Dagur Modern Mongolic languages besides Mongolian
Dauro see: Dawro Omotic
Davani Southwest Iranian
Davawenyo Languages of the Philippines
Dâw Languages of Western Amazonia
Dawan see: Baikeno Central Malayo-Polynesian
Dawanese see: Baikeno Central Malayo-Polynesian
Dawawa Oceanic
Dawro Omotic
Dawuro see: Dawro Omotic
Dayak Western Malayo-Polynesian
Dazaga Nilo-Saharan
Deed Mongol Oirat (including Kalmyk)
Deele Adamawa
Defaka Niger-Congo (Niger-Kordofanian)
Deg Gur (Voltaic)
Deg Xinag see: Ingalik Athapaskan-Eyak
Degema Benue-Congo
Degexit’an see: Ingalik Athapaskan-Eyak
Dehong see: Tai Nua Southwestern Tai
Delaware see: Lenapé Salish
Delaware Pidgin Pidgins and creoles with lexifiers other than Romance and English
Dembiya Cushitic
Demotic Demotic
Dena’ina see: Tanaina Athapaskan-Eyak
Dendi Nilo-Saharan
Dene see: Slavey Athapaskan-Eyak
Dëne Suliné Athapaskan-Eyak
Dene Tha Athapaskan-Eyak
Deni Arawan family
Denya Benue-Congo
Deori Tibeto-Burman languages of Northeast India (Bangladesh, Nepal)
Dera Papuan
Derbet see: Dörbet Oirat (including Kalmyk)
Desano Tukanoan stock
Dhaasanac see: Daasanach Cushitic
Dhalandji Southwest Pama-Nyungan
Dhangar North Dravidian
Dhangu Pama-Nyungan
Dhani Central Indo-Aryan
Dhao Central Malayo-Polynesian
Dhargari Southwest Pama-Nyungan
Dharua see: Kudmali Eastern Indo-Aryan
Dharuk see: Yora Pama-Nyungan
Dharumbal Pama-Nyungan
Dhegiha Siouan
Dhimal Bodish languages
Dhitoro see: Otoro Kordofanian
Dhivehi see: Maldivian Sinhalese-Maldivian
Dholuo see: Luo Nilo-Saharan
Dhuwal Australian
Di Bantu
Dibole Bantu
Dida Kru
Diegueño Yuman
Dieri see: Diyari Pama-Nyungan
Digo Bantu
Dili Tetum see: Tetun Dili Pidgins and creoles with lexifiers other than Romance and English
Dimasa Tibeto-Burman languages of Northeast India (Bangladesh, Nepal)
Dime Omotic
Dimli see: Zazaki Northwest Iranian
Dinka-Nuer Nilo-Saharan
Diola see: Joola Atlantic
Dioula see: Dyula Mande
Dir Cushitic
Diraašša see: Dirasha Cushitic
Dirasha Cushitic
Ditammari Gur (Voltaic)
Ditidaht Wakashan
Diyari Pama-Nyungan
Dizi Omotic
Dizoid Omotic
Dizu see: Bench Omotic
Djabugay see: Dyaabugay Southwest Pama-Nyungan
Djadja Wurrung see: Djadjala Pama-Nyungan
Djadjala Pama-Nyungan
Djadjawurung see: Djadjala Pama-Nyungan
Djambarrpuyŋu Australian
Djamindjungan see: Jaminjungan Non-Pama-Nyungan
Djapu Pama-Nyungan
Djaru see: Jaru Southwest Pama-Nyungan
Djeebbana see: Ndjébbana Non-Pama-Nyungan
Djerba Berber
Djingili see: Jingulu Non-Pama-Nyungan
Djingli see: Jingulu Non-Pama-Nyungan
Djirbal see: Dyirbal Pama-Nyungan
Djiwarli Southwest Pama-Nyungan
Dla see: Dera Papuan
Dobel Central Malayo-Polynesian
Doga Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Dogon Niger-Congo (Niger-Kordofanian)
Dogon Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Dogri Northern Indo-Aryan (Pahari/Himalayan)
Dogrib Athapaskan-Eyak
Dohoi Western Malayo-Polynesian
Dolgan Yakut
Dom Papuan
Domaakí Dardic
Domari Central Indo-Aryan
Dominica Creole English English lexifier pidgins and creoles
Dompo Kwa
Dondo Western Malayo-Polynesian
Dong Kadai
Donggan Modern Chinese
Dongxiang see: Santa Modern Mongolic languages besides Mongolian
Dörbed see: Dörbet Oirat (including Kalmyk)
Dörbet Oirat (including Kalmyk)
Dorig Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Doromu-Koki Papuan
Dörvöd see: Dörbet Oirat (including Kalmyk)
Dorze Omotic
Dotyali Northern Indo-Aryan (Pahari/Himalayan)
Doyayo Adamawa
Dravidian languages Dravidian languages
Drehu Oceanic
Dritto Italo-Romance
Drubea Papuan
Drung see: Trung Central Tibeto-Burman languages
Dschang see: Yemba Benue-Congo
Duala Bantu
Duala A20 Bantu
Duhumbi Central Tibeto-Burman languages
Dukhan see: Tuvan Northeast Turkic
Dullay Cushitic
Dulong see: Trung Central Tibeto-Burman languages
Dumbea see: Drubea Papuan
Dumi Himalayan Bodic languages
Dumut Papuan
Duna Papuan
Dungan see: Donggan Modern Chinese
Duoxu Northeastern Tibeto-Burman languages
Dupaningan Languages of the Philippines
Dura Tibeto-Burman
Duri Western Malayo-Polynesian
Durorp Benue-Congo
Duru Adamawa
Dusner South Halmahera-West-New Guinea
Dusun Malayo-Polynesian
Dutch Dutch
Dutch Low Saxon Modern Dutch
Dutch Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Duungidjawu Southwest Pama-Nyungan
Duungoma Mande
Duwai Chadic
Duwet Papuan
Dyaabugay Southwest Pama-Nyungan
Dyirbal Pama-Nyungan
Dyula Mande
Dzala see: Dzalakha Bodish languages
Dzalakha Bodish languages
Dzə Adamawa
Dzongkha Tibetan (Central Bodish)
Dzùùngoo Mande
Early Middle Japanese Early Middle Japanese
Early Middle Korean Early Middle Korean
Early Modern English Early Modern English
Early Modern Japanese Early Modern Japanese
Early New High German Early New High German
East African English Modern English
East Ambae Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
East Germanic East Germanic
East Greenlandic Eskimo-Aleut
East Iranian East Iranian
East Makian see: Taba South Halmahera-West-New Guinea
East Pomeranian New Low German
East Semitic East Semitic
East Slavic East Slavic
East Tusom Kuki-Chin-Naga
East-Central Indo-Aryan (Kosali) East-Central Indo-Aryan (Kosali)
Eastern Dan Mande
Eastern Indo-Aryan Eastern Indo-Aryan
Eastern Kipchak (Nogai, Kazakh, Karakalpak, Kirghiz) Eastern Kipchak (Nogai, Kazakh, Karakalpak, Kirghiz)
Eastern Malayo-Polynesian Eastern Malayo-Polynesian
Eastern Maroon Creole English lexifier pidgins and creoles
Eastern Mon-Khmer Eastern Mon-Khmer
Eastern Sudanic Nilo-Saharan
Eastern Ubangian see: Ubangian (Eastern) Ubangian (Eastern)
Eastern Yugur Modern Mongolic languages besides Mongolian
Ebang see: Heiban Kordofanian
Ebira Benue-Congo
Eblaite Eblaite
Ebrié see: Cama Kwa
Ede see: Rade Malayo-Polynesian
Edo Benue-Congo
Edolo Papuan
Edomite Canaanite
Educated Spoken Arabic Classical and Modern Standard Arabic or Modern Arabic dialects
Efik Benue-Congo
Efutu Kwa
Ega Kwa
Eggon Benue-Congo
Egyptian Egyptian
Egyptian Arabic Modern Arabic dialects
Egyptian Berber Berber
Egypto-Coptic Egypto-Coptic
Ei Pidgins and creoles with lexifiers other than Romance and English
Eipo Papuan
Eipsan Papuan
Ejagham Benue-Congo
Ekagi Papuan
Ekoi see: Ejagham Benue-Congo
Elamite Elamite
Elfdalian Swedish
Elip Bantu
Elmolo Cushitic
Elpira see: Warlpiri Southwest Pama-Nyungan
Elymian Indo-European languages
Emae Polynesian
Emai Benue-Congo
Embaloh Western Malayo-Polynesian
Emberá Norte Languages of Northwest South America
Emberá Sur Languages of Northwest South America
Embu Bantu
Emerillon Tupi-Guarani substock
Emerum see: Apali Papuan
Emirati Arabic see: Bedouin Arabic Modern Arabic dialects
Emirati Pidgin Arabic Pidgins and creoles with lexifiers other than Romance and English
En see: Wa Northern Mon-Khmer
’Enana see: Marquesan Polynesian
’Enata see: Marquesan Polynesian
Ende (Austronesian) Central Malayo-Polynesian
Ende (Papuan) Papuan
Enets Enets
Enga Papuan
Engan Papuan
Engenni Kwa
Enggano Austronesian
English English
English lexifier pidgins and creoles English lexifier pidgins and creoles
Engsh Bantu
Enim Western Malayo-Polynesian
Enrekang Western Malayo-Polynesian
Enu Burmese-Lolo (Burmic)
Enuani see: Igbo Benue-Congo
Eora see: Yora Pama-Nyungan
Eotile Kwa
Equatoguinean Spanish Non-European Spanish
Eravallan Tamil
Erbore see: Arbore Cushitic
Ere Oceanic
Eromanga Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Erromanga see: Eromanga Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Erromangan Oceanic
Ersu Northeastern Tibeto-Burman languages
Erzya Mordva (Mordvinian)
Esan Benue-Congo
Ese Papuan
Ese eja Takana family
Ese ejja see: Ese eja Takana family
Esimbi Benue-Congo
Eskayan Planned languages
Eskimo-Aleut Eskimo-Aleut
Esmeralda Languages of the South American Northern Foothills
Esperanto Planned languages
Esselen North American small families and isolates
Estonian Estonian
Estonian Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Etchemin Algonquian-Ritwan (Algic)
Etem Planned languages
Eteocretan Minoan, Eteocretan, Prehellenic
Eteocypriot see: Amathusian Minoan, Eteocretan, Prehellenic
Ethiopian see: Amharic Ethiopic
Ethiopian Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Ethiopic Ethiopic
Eton Bantu
Etruscan Etruscan
Etsakor see: Yekhee Benue-Congo
Etulo Atlantic
Euchee see: Yuchi Yuchi
Eurasiatic languages Eurasiatic languages
Euro-English Modern English
Even Northern Tungusic
Evenki Northern Tungusic
Evji see: Duwai Chadic
Ewe Kwa
Ewondo Bantu
Ewondo-Fang A70 Bantu
Ewulu Benue-Congo
Extinct Samoyedic languages Extinct Samoyedic languages
Extreme Southern Italian dialects Italo-Romance
Eyak Athapaskan-Eyak
Eynu Southeast Turkic (Uighur)
Ezha Ethiopic
Fa d’Ambô see: Fa d’Ambu Romance lexifier pidgins and creoles
Fa d’Ambu Romance lexifier pidgins and creoles
A Fala Portuguese, Galician
Fali Adamawa
Faliscan Latino-Faliscan
Falkland Islands English Modern English
Fallam Kuki-Chin-Naga
Fanakalo Pidgins and creoles with lexifiers other than Romance and English
Fanbak Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Fang Bantu
Fantasy languages Fantasy languages
Farefare Gur (Voltaic)
Faroese Faroese
Farsi see: Persian Persian
Fasu Papuan
Fataluku Papuan
Favorlang Formosan
Fe'fe' Benue-Congo
Fesoa see: Nalik Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Fessoa see: Nalik Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Figuig Berber
Fiji Hindi Hindi and Urdu
Fiji Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Fijian Polynesian
Fijian Hindustani see: Fiji Hindi Hindi and Urdu
Filipino see: Tagalog Languages of the Philippines
Finland Swedish Swedish
Finnic Finnic
Finnish (Suomi) Finnish (Suomi)
Finnish Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Finnish-Russian Jargon Pidgins and creoles with lexifiers other than Romance and English
Finno-Ugric Finno-Ugric
Fiorentino see: Tuscan Italo-Romance
Fipa-Mambwe M10 Bantu
Fiuman Italo-Romance
Flaaitaal see: Tsotsitaal Afrikaans
Flemish Modern Dutch
Flemish Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Flores-Lembata Central Malayo-Polynesian
Foau Papuan
Foe see: Foi Papuan
Foi Papuan
Fon Kwa
Fongbe see: Fon Kwa
Foodo Kwa
For see: Fur Nilo-Saharan
Fordata Central Malayo-Polynesian
Fore Papuan
Forest Nenets Nenets
Formosan Formosan
Franco-Provençal Franco-Provençal
French French
French Belgian Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
French Guianese Creole Romance lexifier pidgins and creoles
French of Subsaharan Africa see: African French Modern French
French Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Frisian Frisian
Friulan Friulan
Fula Atlantic
Fulfulde see: Fula Atlantic
Fuliiro Bantu
Fulniô Yatê see: Yaathe Macro-Jê stock
Fumu Bantu
Fungwa Benue-Congo
Fur Nilo-Saharan
Futunan Polynesian
Fuyug Papuan
Fwaî Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Fwe Bantu
Ga Kwa
Gaagudju see: Gagadu Non-Pama-Nyungan
Gaahmg see: Jebel Nilo-Saharan
Gaalpu see: Dhangu Pama-Nyungan
Gadaba Central Dravidian
Ga’dang Languages of the Philippines
Gadang Chadic
Gaddang Languages of the Philippines
Gaddi Northern Indo-Aryan (Pahari/Himalayan)
Gadjerawang Non-Pama-Nyungan
Gadsup Papuan
Gaelic see: Goidelic (Gaelic) Goidelic (Gaelic)
Gafat Ethiopic
Gafatinya see: Gafat Ethiopic
Gagadu Non-Pama-Nyungan
Gagauz Turkish (Osmanli), Balkan dialects, Gagauz
Gahom see: Bahinemo Papuan
Gahri Bodish languages
Gahuku Papuan
Galela Papuan
Galeya Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Galgadungic Pama-Nyungan
Gàlì Chadic
Galibi see: Kari’ña Carib family
Galim see: Suga Benue-Congo
Gallo Gallo-Romance
Gallo-Italian Italo-Romance
Gallo-Romance Gallo-Romance
Gallurese Sardinian
Galo Tibeto-Burman languages of Northeast India (Bangladesh, Nepal)
Gamilaraay Southwest Pama-Nyungan
Gamo Omotic
Gan Modern Chinese
Gan (Gur) see: Kaanse Gur (Voltaic)
Gǁana Khoisan
Ganda Bantu
Gane South Halmahera-West-New Guinea
Gapapaiwa Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Garawa Non-Pama-Nyungan
Garhwali Northern Indo-Aryan (Pahari/Himalayan)
Garifuna Arawakan stock
Garo Tibeto-Burman languages of Northeast India (Bangladesh, Nepal)
Garrwa see: Garawa Non-Pama-Nyungan
Garwi see: Kalami Dardic
Gascon Modern Occitan
Gathang Pama-Nyungan
Gaulish Gaulish
Gavar see: Gawar-Bati Dardic
Gavião Tupian stock
Gawar-Bati Dardic
Gawwada Cushitic
Gayardilt see: Kayardild Southwest Pama-Nyungan
Gayo Western Malayo-Polynesian
Gazhuo see: Khatso Burmese-Lolo (Burmic)
Gban Mande
Gbaya Ubangian (Eastern)
Gbe Kwa
Ge Ethiopic
Geba Karen
Gebe South Halmahera-West-New Guinea
Ge-Chi Kadai
Geʿez Ethiopic
Geji Chadic
Gela Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Gelao Kadai
Gelong Tai-Kadai
Gemu see: Gamo Omotic
Georgian Georgian
Georgian Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
German German
German Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Germanic Germanic
Geser Central Malayo-Polynesian
Geshiza Northeastern Tibeto-Burman languages
Gesinan see: Harari Ethiopic
Ge-Sinan see: Harari Ethiopic
Gestuno see: International Sign Language Planned languages
Geto Ethiopic
Geyang Thai
Ge-Yang Kadai
Ghadames Berber
Ghale Bodish languages
Ghanaian Pidgin English English lexifier pidgins and creoles
Ghanaian Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Ghɔmálá’ see: Ghomala Benue-Congo
Gheg Albanian
Ghimirra see: Bench Omotic
Ghodoberi see: Godoberi Avaro-Andi-Dido
Ghomala Benue-Congo
Gidabal Pama-Nyungan
Gidar Chadic
Gide’o Cushitic
Gidja see: Kija Non-Pama-Nyungan
Gi’iz see: Geʿez Ethiopic
Gilaki Northwest Iranian
Gilbertese see: Kiribati Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Gilyak (Nivkh) Gilyak (Nivkh)
Gimira see: Bench Omotic
Gimojan Omotic
Ginux Tsezic
Ginyanga Kwa
Giryama Bantu
Gitksan Tsimshian
Gizey Chadic
Giziga Chadic
Glavda Chadic
Globish Planned languages
Godoberi Avaro-Andi-Dido
Goemai Chadic
Gofa Omotic
Gogo Bantu
Gogo-Kagulu G10 Bantu
Goidelic (Gaelic) Goidelic (Gaelic)
Gojri Central Indo-Aryan
Gokana see: Ogoni Benue-Congo
Golbafi Southwest Iranian
Gomadj see: Gumatj Southwest Pama-Nyungan
Gomaidj see: Gumatj Southwest Pama-Nyungan
Gondi South-Central Dravidian
Gong see: Ugong Burmese-Lolo (Burmic)
Gonga Omotic
Gongdubikha see: Gongduk Bodish
Gongduk Bodish
Gonja Kwa
Goo Mande
Gooniyandi Non-Pama-Nyungan
Gorani see: Gurani Northwest Iranian
Gorlos Mongolian proper
Gorlos-Jalait-Dörbet Mongolian proper
Gorontalo Western Malayo-Polynesian
Gorowa Cushitic
Gorum Munda
Gothic Gothic
Gouraghie see: Gurage Ethiopic
Govorka see: Taimyr Pidgin Russian Pidgins and creoles with lexifiers other than Romance and English
Gradišćanskohrvatski jezik see: Burgenland Croatian Serbo-Croatian (Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian)
Grangali Dardic
Grassfields languages Benue-Congo
Great Andamanese Andamanese
Greek Greek
Greek Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Grenadian Creole English English lexifier pidgins and creoles
Griko Modern Greek
gSerkhu Northeastern Tibeto-Burman languages
Gta Munda
Gua see: Late Kwa
Guahibo Languages of Western Amazonia
Guaijaro see: Wayú Arawakan stock
Guajá Tupi-Guarani substock
Guajajara Tupi-Guarani substock
Guajibo see: Guahibo Languages of Western Amazonia
Guale North American small families and isolates
Guambiano Languages of Northwest South America
Guanhua see: Mandarin Modern Chinese
Guanjinqiao Northeastern Tibeto-Burman languages
Guaraché Guarani
Guarani Guarani
Guaraní paraguayo Guarani
Guarasu Tupi-Guarani substock
Guarayu Tupi-Guarani substock
Guarijío Uto-Aztecan
Guatemalan Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Guató Macro-Jê stock
Guaycurú see: Waikurú Languages of the Chaco Region
Guaymí Chibcha family
Gudi Chadic
Guébie Kru
Guernésiais see: Norman French Modern French
Guernsey English see: Channel Island English Modern English
Gugudayor see: Thayore Paman
Guguyalanji see: Kuku-Yalanji Southwest Pama-Nyungan
Guhu Samane Papuan
Gǀui Khoisan
Guinea French Romance lexifier pidgins and creoles
Guinea-Bissau Portuguese Non-European Portuguese
Guinea-Bissau Portuguese Creole see: Guiné-Bissao Creole Portuguese Romance lexifier pidgins and creoles
Guiné-Bissao Creole Portuguese Romance lexifier pidgins and creoles
Guiqiong Northeastern Tibeto-Burman languages
Gujarati Central Indo-Aryan
Gujari see: Gojri Central Indo-Aryan
Gula Iro Adamawa
Gulf Arabic see: Bedouin Arabic Modern Arabic dialects
Gulf Pidgin Arabic Pidgins and creoles with lexifiers other than Romance and English
Gullah English lexifier pidgins and creoles
Gulmancema Gur (Voltaic)
Gumatj Southwest Pama-Nyungan
Gumawana Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Gumbaynggir Pama-Nyungan
Gumuz Nilo-Saharan
Gun see: Gungbe Kwa
Gunai Pama-Nyungan
Gungbe Kwa
Gunin see: Kwini Non-Pama-Nyungan
Gunu Bantu
Gününa Küne Languages of the South American Southern Foothills
Gunwinggu Non-Pama-Nyungan
Gunwingguan Non-Pama-Nyungan
Gunwinyguan see: Gunwingguan Non-Pama-Nyungan
Gunzib Tsezic
Gupapuyngu Southwest Pama-Nyungan
Gur (Voltaic) Gur (Voltaic)
Gurage Ethiopic
Guragie see: Gurage Ethiopic
Guragone Non-Pama-Nyungan
Gurague see: Gurage Ethiopic
Gurani Northwest Iranian
Gurbani Central Indo-Aryan
Gùrdun see: Gùrùntùm Chadic
Gurene see: Gur (Voltaic) Gur (Voltaic)
Gurenne see: Farefare Gur (Voltaic)
Guresha see: Buli Gur (Voltaic)
Gurian Georgian
Gurindji Southwest Pama-Nyungan
Gurindji Kriol Pidgins and creoles with lexifiers other than Romance and English
Gurinji see: Gurindji Southwest Pama-Nyungan
Gurma Gur (Voltaic)
Guro Mande
Gurrgoni see: Guragone Non-Pama-Nyungan
Gurundji see: Gurunji Paman
Gurung Bodish languages
Gurunji Paman
Gùrùntùm Chadic
Gusii Bantu
Gutob Munda
Guugu Yimidhirr see: Guugu Yimithirr Southwest Pama-Nyungan
Guugu Yimithirr Southwest Pama-Nyungan
Guyanese Creole English lexifier pidgins and creoles
Guyuk Adamawa
Gwaanda Adamawa
Gwahatike Papuan
Gwama Nilo-Saharan
Gwari Benue-Congo
Gwemara see: Gurage Ethiopic
Gwenedeg Modern Breton
Gwere Bantu
Gwich’in Athapaskan-Eyak
Gyalsumdo Tibetan (Central Bodish)
Gyarong see: Jiarong Northeastern Tibeto-Burman languages
Gyele Bantu
Gyirong see: Kyerung Tibetan (Central Bodish)
ǀHaasi Khoisan
Haavu Bantu
ǂHaba Khoisan
Habesha see: Tigrinya Ethiopic
Hadandowa Cushitic
Hadiyya Cushitic
Hadrami Arabic see: Yemeni Arabic Modern Arabic dialects
Hadramitic South Arabic
Hadza Khoisan
Haida Haida
Haiǁʼom Khoisan
Haisla Wakashan
Haitian Creole Romance lexifier pidgins and creoles
Haitian Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Hajong Bengali
Hakka Modern Chinese
Halaba see: Allaaba Cushitic
Halh see: Khalkha Mongolian proper
Halia Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Haliti see: Paresí Arawakan stock
Halkomelem Salish
Halq'eméylem see: Halkomelem Salish
Hamer-Banna Omotic
Hamito-Semitic languages see: Afro-Asiatic (Hamito-Semitic) languages Afro-Asiatic (Hamito-Semitic) languages
Hamtanga Cushitic
Hän Athapaskan-Eyak
Hanga Bantu
Hani Burmese-Lolo (Burmic)
Hano see: Raga Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Hanoi Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Haoni see: Honi Burmese-Lolo (Burmic)
Harakmbut Languages of Western Amazonia
Harappan (language of the ancient Indus civilization) Harappan (language of the ancient Indus civilization)
Harari Ethiopic
Haro see: Koorete Omotic
Haroti Central Indo-Aryan
Harro see: Koorete Omotic
Harsusi South Arabic
Haruai Papuan
Haruku Central Malayo-Polynesian
Haryanvi Hindi and Urdu
Hasaitic Ancient Arabic (Safaitic, Lihyanite, Thamudic, Hasaitic)
Hassaniyya Modern Arabic dialects
Hatam Papuan
Hatran Aramaic Old Aramaic
Hattian Hattian
Hãtxa Kuĩ Brazilian Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Hausa Hausa
Hausa Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Havasupai Yuman
Hawai’i Creole English English lexifier pidgins and creoles
Hawai’i Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Hawaiian Polynesian
Hawrami see: Gurani Northwest Iranian
Hawu see: Sabu Central Malayo-Polynesian
Haya Bantu
Haya-Jita JE20 Bantu
Hayu Himalayan Bodic languages
Hdi Chadic
Headwaters Buang Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Hebrew Hebrew
Hehe Bantu
Heiban Kordofanian
Heilongjiang Dörbet Mongolian proper
Heiltsuk Wakashan
Heiltsukvla see: Heiltsuk Wakashan
Helambu Sherpa see: Yolmo Tibetan (Central Bodish)
Helong Central Malayo-Polynesian
Hema Bantu
Herero Bantu
Herero R30 Bantu
Hezhe Southern Tungusic
Hiaki see: Yaqui Uto-Aztecan
Hibito Languages of the Andes
Hichiti-Mikasuki Muskogean
Hidatsa Siouan
High German High German
Highland Chontal see: Tequistlatec Mesoamerican small families and isolates
Hijazi Arabic see: Saudi Arabian Arabic Modern Arabic dialects
Hiligaynon Languages of the Philippines
Hill Mari Mari (Cheremis)
Himalayan Northern Indo-Aryan (Pahari/Himalayan)
Himalayan Bodic languages Himalayan Bodic languages
Hindi and Urdu Hindi and Urdu
Hindko Northwest Indo-Aryan
Hinukh see: Ginux Tsezic
Hinuq see: Ginux Tsezic
Hiri Motu Pidgins and creoles with lexifiers other than Romance and English
Hismaic Ancient Arabic (Safaitic, Lihyanite, Thamudic, Hasaitic)
Hispanic see: Ibero-Romance Ibero-Romance
Hispano-Celtic see: Celtiberian and Hispano-Celtic Celtiberian and Hispano-Celtic
Hittite Hittite
Hiw Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Hixkaryana Carib family
Hlai Tai-Kadai
Hmong Hmong-Mien (Miao-Yao)
Hmongic Hmong-Mien (Miao-Yao)
Hmong-Mien (Miao-Yao) Hmong-Mien (Miao-Yao)
Hmu Hmong-Mien (Miao-Yao)
Ho Munda
Ho Chi Minh City Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Hồ Chí Minh City Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Ho Ne Hmong-Mien (Miao-Yao)
ǂHoan Khoisan
Hoava Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Hobyot Ancient Arabic (Safaitic, Lihyanite, Thamudic, Hasaitic)
Hocak see: Winnebago Siouan
Hochank see: Winnebago Siouan
Ho-Chunk see: Winnebago Siouan
Hodɨ Languages of Amazonia
Hokan Hokan
Hokkaglish Languages of the Philippines
Hokkien Modern Chinese
Hoklo see: Taiwanese Modern Chinese
Hone Benue-Congo
Hong Kong English Modern English
Hong Kong Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Honi Burmese-Lolo (Burmic)
Hopi Uto-Aztecan
Horpa Northeastern Tibeto-Burman languages
Hottentot Dutch see: Cape Dutch Pidgin Pidgins and creoles with lexifiers other than Romance and English
Hovongan Western Malayo-Polynesian
Hozo Omotic
Hrangkhol Kuki-Chin-Naga
Hrusish Tibeto-Burman
Hruso Tibeto-Burman
Hsiang see: Xiang Modern Chinese
Hu Northern Mon-Khmer
Hua Papuan
Hualapai see: Walapai Yuman
Huarayo see: Ese eja Takana family
Huariapano see: Wariapano Pano family
Huarijío see: Guarijío Uto-Aztecan
Huarpe see: Warpe Languages of the South American Cone
Huastec Mayan
Huave Mesoamerican small families and isolates
Huelel see: Esselen North American small families and isolates
Huetar Chibcha family
Huichol Uto-Aztecan
Huihui see: Tsat Malayo-Polynesian
Huizhou Modern Chinese
Hukumina Central Malayo-Polynesian
Hula Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Huli Papuan
Humurana see: Omurano Languages of the South American Northern Foothills
Hunan see: Xiang Modern Chinese
Hunde Bantu
Hundzur see: Avar Avaro-Andi-Dido
Hunganna Bantu
Hungarian Hungarian
Hungarian Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Hunsrik New High German
Hunzib see: Gunzib Tsezic
Hup see: Hupda Languages of Western Amazonia
Hupa Athapaskan-Eyak
Hupda Languages of Western Amazonia
Huron Iroquoian
Hurrian Hurrian
Hurro-Urartian Hurro-Urartian
Hwarasa Cushitic
Hyam Benue-Congo
Hyow Kuki-Chin-Naga
Iaai Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Iai Papuan
Iatmul Papuan
Iban Western Malayo-Polynesian
Ibanag Languages of the Philippines
Ibatan Languages of the Philippines
Ibeme Benue-Congo
Ibero-Caucasian languages see: Caucasian languages Caucasian languages
Ibero-Romance Ibero-Romance
Ibibio Benue-Congo
Ibo see: Igbo Benue-Congo
Icelandic Icelandic
Icelandic Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Ida’an see: Begak Western Malayo-Polynesian
Idaasha Yoruba
Idate Central Malayo-Polynesian
Idaxo Bantu
Idi Papuan
Idiom Neutral Planned languages
Ido Planned languages
Idoma Benue-Congo
Idumean see: Edomite Canaanite
Ife Yoruba
Ifira-Mele see: Mele Polynesian
Ifugao Languages of the Philippines
Ígálà Yoruba
Igbo Benue-Congo
Igede Benue-Congo
Ignaciano Arawakan stock
Igo Kwa
Iha Papuan
Ijo Niger-Congo (Niger-Kordofanian)
Ik Nilo-Saharan
Ika Chibcha family
Ika (Niger Congo) Niger-Congo (Niger-Kordofanian)
Iko Benue-Congo
Ikoma Bantu
Ikpeng Carib family
Ikposso see: Kposo Kwa
Ikuhane Bantu
Ikwere Benue-Congo
Ila Bantu
Illyrian, Messapic Illyrian, Messapic
Ilocano see: Ilokano Languages of the Philippines
Ilokano Languages of the Philippines
Ilonggo see: Hiligaynon Languages of the Philippines
Imeretian Georgian
Inagta Alabat Languages of the Philippines
Inakeanon see: Aklanon Languages of the Philippines
Inanwatan Papuan
Iñapari Arawakan stock
Inari Saami Saamic
Inaru see: Bahinemo Papuan
Inati Malayo-Polynesian
Indian English Modern English
Indian Portuguese Non-European Portuguese
Indian Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Indi-Awe South-Central Dravidian
Indic see: Indo-Aryan (Indic) Indo-Aryan (Indic)
Indigenous languages of the Americas Indigenous languages of the Americas
Individual sign languages (except ASL) Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Indo-Aryan (Indic) Indo-Aryan (Indic)
Indo-European languages Indo-European languages
Indo-Iranian Indo-Iranian
Indonesian Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Indo-Pakistani Sign Language see: Indian Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Ingalik Athapaskan-Eyak
Ingarikó see: Akawaio Carib family
Ingrian Ingrian
Ingush Nakh
Inor Ethiopic
Insular Celtic Insular Celtic
Insular Scandinavian Insular Scandinavian
Interior Salish Salish
Interlingua Planned languages
Intermediate Southern Italian dialects Italo-Romance
International Sign Language Planned languages
Interrelationships between language families Interrelationships between language families
Interslavic Planned languages
Intha Burmese-Lolo (Burmic)
Inuit Eskimo-Aleut
Inuit Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Inuktitut Eskimo-Aleut
Inuvialuk Eskimo-Aleut
Invalialuktun see: Inuvialuk Eskimo-Aleut
Ipeka Arawakan stock
Iquito Languages of the South American Northern Foothills
Irahutu South Halmahera-West-New Guinea
Iranian Iranian
Iranian Arabic Modern Arabic dialects
Iranian Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Irantxe Languages of Central Amazonia
Iranun Languages of the Philippines
Iraqi Arabic Modern Arabic dialects
Iraqw Cushitic
Irarutu see: Irahutu South Halmahera-West-New Guinea
Irbore see: Arbore Cushitic
Irish Irish
Irish English Modern English
Irish Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Iroquoian Iroquoian
Irula Tamil
I’saka Papuan
Isan Thai
Iscamtho Pidgins and creoles with lexifiers other than Romance and English
Isconahua Pano family
Isharon Ki Zubann see: Pakistan Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Ishkashimi East Iranian
Isimbi see: Esimbi Benue-Congo
Isinai Languages of the Philippines
Islam see: Argobba Ethiopic
Islander Creole English see: San Andrés-Providence Creole English lexifier pidgins and creoles
Isnag Languages of the Philippines
iS’ncamtho Bantu
Israeli Hebrew see: Modern (Israeli) Hebrew Modern (Israeli) Hebrew
Israeli Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Istriot see: Istro-Romance Istro-Romance
Istro-Romance Istro-Romance
Istro-Romanian Balkan Romance
Isu Benue-Congo
Italian Italo-Romance
Italian Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Italic Italic
Italo-Romance Italo-Romance
Itelmen Chukchi-Kamchatkan
Itonama Languages of Central Amazonia
Itsekiri Benue-Congo
Itzaj Mayan
Iu Mien Hmong-Mien (Miao-Yao)
Iwaidjan Non-Pama-Nyungan
Iwal Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Ixcatec Otomanguean
Ixhil Mayan
Iyekhee see: Yekhee Benue-Congo
Izhor see: Ingrian Ingrian
Izon see: Ịzọn Niger-Congo (Niger-Kordofanian)
Jabêm see: Yabem Melanesian and Micronesian (including Chamorro and Palauan)
Jabutí Languages of Central Amazonia
Jad Tibetan (Central Bodish)
Jadliaura Southwest Pama-Nyungan
Jahai Southern Mon-Khmer
Jakaltek Mayan
Jakhachin Oirat (including Kalmyk)
Jakun Western Malayo-Polynesian
Jalait Mongolian proper
Jalayid see: Jalait Mongolian proper
Jalonke see: Yalunka Mande
Jamaican Creole English lexifier pidgins and creoles
Jamaican English Modern English
Jamee Western Malayo-Polynesian
Jaminjungan Non-Pama-Nyungan
Janjero see: Yemsa Omotic
Japan Sign Language Individual sign languages (except ASL)
Japanese Japanese
Japanese English Modern English
Japhug Northeastern Tibeto-Burman languages
Japreria Carib family
Jaqačin see: Jakhachin Oirat (including Kalmyk)
Jaqaru Aymara
Jarai Malayo-Polynesian
Jaralde see: Tanganekald Pama-Nyungan
Jarawa Andamanese
Jarawan Bantu Benue-Congo
Jarawara Arawan family
Jarildekald see: Tanganekald Pama-Nyungan
Jaroo see: Jaru Southwest Pama-Nyungan
Jaru Southwest Pama-Nyungan
Jaruára see: Jarawara Arawan family
Jarut Mongolian proper
Javanese Javanese
Jawoyn Non-Pama-Nyungan
Jê family
Jê family Jê family
Jebel Nilo-Saharan
Jebero Languages of the South American Northern Foothills
Jedek Southern Mon-Khmer
Jejueo Korean
Jeli Mande
Jemez see: Towa Kiowa-Tanoan
Jemjem see: Suga Benue-Congo
Jen Adamawa
Jero see: Jerung Himalayan Bodic languages
Jèrriais see: Norman French Modern French
Jersey English see: Channel Island English Modern English
Jerung Himalayan Bodic languages
Jewish Arabic Modern Arabic dialects
Jewish English Modern English
Jherung see: Jerung Himalayan Bodic languages
Jianghuai Mandarin see: Lower Yangtze Mandarin Modern Chinese
Jiaoliao Mandarin Modern Chinese
Jiarong Northeastern Tibeto-Burman languages
Jiba see: Hone Benue-Congo